Those are trigonometric functions. The use cases are as plenty as there are use cases for addition and subtraction. You will most likely learn these functions in a trig or pre-calculus class.
Here I’m just going to talk about sine and cosine + their inverse functions asin and acos (
math.acos). It’s helpful to think about sine and cosine as the Y and X coordinates on a plane as Θ (theta) increases. In figure B, you can see the graph of
y = sin(Θ) depicted by the red line and the graph of
x = cos(Θ) in blue. It also shows you how that translates into coordinates on a plane. If you calculate x and y for every number between 0 and 2 * pi, it will result in a circle! You can graph the functions
y=sin(x) from 0 to 2π on Desmos and convert the two values into X and Y coordinates if figure is confusing to you.
Tangent is the ratio between sine and cosine
tan(Θ) = sin(Θ) / cos(Θ). Often times it can be represented as the “slope”; the “instantaneous tangent line” is something you learn how to calculate in a calculus class with limits and derivatives. Don’t worry too much about this one until you grasp the concept of sine and cosine first.
math.acos do the opposite (inverse) of
math.cos. They return the Θ value that corresponds to the number from -1, 1 you pass in. I wouldn’t worry too much about those right now though. If you have any questions, feel free to ask them here.